9 ธันวาคม 2561 เวลา 04:19 น. This article lists the sizes, shapes, and general characteristics of some common primary and secondary battery types in household and light industrial use. The long history of ตาราง mono29 dry cells means that many different manufacturer-specific and national standards were used to designate sizes, long before international standards were agreed upon. The complete nomenclature for a battery specifies size, chemistry, terminal arrangement, and special characteristics.
Both standards have several parts that cover general principles, physical specifications, and safety. Designations by IEC and ANSI standards do not entirely agree, though harmonization is in progress. Also, manufacturers have their systems for identifying cell types, so cross-reference tables are useful to identify equivalent types from different manufacturers. Lead-acid automotive starting, lighting and ignition batteries have been standardized according to IEC standard 60095 and in North America by standards published by BCI.
Often this is done to steer customers towards a specific brand, and away from competing or generic brands, by obfuscating the common name. On the other hand, with obscure battery types the designation assigned by a specific brand will sometimes become the most common name for that battery type, as other manufacturers copy or modify the name so that customers recognize it. The terminal voltage of a battery cell depends on the chemicals and materials used in its construction, and not on its physical size. Mercury batteries had stable cell terminal voltages around 1. From the late 1940s until the mid-1990s, mercury batteries were made in many consumer and industrial sizes.
The following tables give the common battery chemistries for the current common sizes of batteries. See Battery Chemistries for a list of other electrochemical systems. Cylindrical cells typically have a positive terminal nub at one end, and a flat negative terminal at the other. A cell with a nub on the positive terminal is called a button-top, and a cell without a positive nub is called a flat-top.
Two different cells of the same nominal size, e. 18650 cells, may have different diameter buttons if made by different manufacturers, and this can lead to incompatibility with devices. It is important to check the battery contacts in a device before attempting to install cells, because some will not work with flat-tops or with button-tops whose buttons are the wrong diameter. Some devices have a small bump or spring where the positive terminal of the cell connects, and this allows the use of either button- or flat-top cells. Other devices have a flat area that can only be contacted by a button-top.
This section needs additional citations for verification. These are round batteries with height longer than their diameter. In zinc-carbon or alkaline types they produce around 1. Other types produce other voltages per package, as low as 1.
2V for rechargeable nickel-cadmium, up 12V for the A23 alkaline battery, a stack of 8 cells in the same overall format. Same diameter as AA battery, used in small electronics, including electric shaver. Sometimes used in pen flashlights, laser pointers, powered styluses, calculators, fishing lures, or electronic glucose meters. Introduced 1907, but added to ANSI standard sizes in 1947. Note: 14500 Lithium Batteries are not AA as they are 3. Most commonly found within a European 4.